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Search over 300 published research articles on hypochlorous acid

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Results: 213 published articles

Meat Science 71.1 (2005): 79-91

Post-harvest interventions to reduce/eliminate pathogens in beef

Microbe(s): Meat Science 71.1 (2005): 79-91

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

In 1999 the foodborne pathogens Salmonella, Listeria, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli (both O157 and non-O157) were estimated to cause more than 6 million illnesses and approximately 9000 deaths each year. However, the most recent Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report on the sources and incidence of foodborne disease, released in 2004, has shown a dramatic decrease in E. coli...

Journal of Food Protection 65.2 (2002): 411-414

Decontaminative effect of frozen acidic electrolyzed water on lettuce

Microbe(s): Journal of Food Protection 65.2 (2002): 411-414

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

The disinfectant effect of acidic electrolyzed water (AcEW), ozonated water, and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution on lettuce was examined. AcEW (pH 2.6; oxidation reduction potential, 1140 mV; 30 ppm of available chlorine) and NaOCl solution (150 ppm of available chlorine) reduced viable aerobes in lettuce by 2 log CFU/g within 10 min. For lettuce washed in alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW)...

Crop protection 54 (2013): 43-47

Using electrolyzed oxidizing water combined with an ultrasonic wave on the postharvest diseases control of pineapple fruit cv. Phu Lae

Microbe(s): Crop protection 54 (2013): 43-47

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

The effects of ultrasound (US) and electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water on postharvest decay of pineapple cv. Phu Lae were investigated using Fusarium sp. isolated from pineapple fruits. The effect of EO water and US irradiation on in vitro growth inhibition of Fusarium sp. was studied. Spore suspensions were treated EO water with free chlorine at 100, 200 and 300 ppm and different frequencies of...

Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65.9 (1999): 4276-4279

Efficacy of Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water for Inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes

Microbe(s): Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65.9 (1999): 4276-4279

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

The efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing water for inactivating. Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated. A five-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7,S. enteritidis, or L. monocytogenes of approximately 108 CFU/ml was inoculated in 9 ml of electrolyzed oxidizing water (treatment) or 9 ml of sterile, deionized water (control) and incubated at 4 or 23 C...

Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 367.2 (1999): 311-316

Reactive oxygen species are partially involved in the bacteriocidal action of hypochlorous acid

Microbe(s): Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 367.2 (1999): 311-316

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is probably the most widely used disinfectant worldwide and has an important role in inflammatory reaction and in human resistance to infection. However, the nature and mechanisms of its bactericidal activity are still poorly understood. Bacteria challenged aerobically with HOCl concentrations ranging from 9.5 to 76 M exhibit higher ability to form colonies anaerobically...

Analytical Sciences 16.4 (2000): 365-369

The efficiency of disinfection of acidic electrolyzed water in the presence of organic materials

Microbe(s): Analytical Sciences 16.4 (2000): 365-369

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

Acidic electrolyzed water (acidic EW), which is prepared by the electrolysis of an aqueous NaCl solution, has recently become of great importance for disinfection in a variety of fields, including medicine, the food industry and agriculture. In a previous paper we showed that: 1) acidic EW is a mixture of hypocholorite ion, hypochlorous acid and chlorine, depending upon the pH; 2) hypochlorous...

International Journal of Food Microbiology 61.2 (2000): 199-207

Efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) and chemically modified water on different types of foodborne pathogens

Microbe(s): International Journal of Food Microbiology 61.2 (2000): 199-207

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) and chemically modified water with properties similar to the EO water for inactivation of different types of foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus). A five-strain cocktail of each microorganism was exposed to deionized water (control), EO water and chemically...

Journal of Food Protection 63.11 (2000): 1534-1537

Ultraviolet spectrophotometric characterization and bactericidal properties of electrolyzed oxidizing water as influenced by amperage and pH

Microbe(s): Journal of Food Protection 63.11 (2000): 1534-1537

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

To identify the primary component responsible in electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water for inactivation, this study determined the concentrations of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and hypochlorite ions (OCl-) and related those concentrations to the microbicidal activity of the water. The ultraviolet absorption spectra were used to determine the concentrations of HOCl and OCl- in EO water and the chemical...

Journal of Food Protection 63.1 (2000): 19-24

Roles of oxidation reduction potential in electrolyzed oxidizing and chemically modified water for the inactivation of food-related pathogens

Microbe(s): Journal of Food Protection 63.1 (2000): 19-24

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

This study investigates the properties of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water for the inactivation of pathogen and to evaluate the chemically modified solutions possessing properties similar to EO water in killing Escherichia coli O157:H7. A five-strain cocktail (1010 CFU/ml) of E. coli O157:H7 was subjected to deionized water (control), EO water with 10 mg/liter residual chlorine (J.A.W-EO water),...

Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 25.2 (2001): 91-100

Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms by electrolyzed oxidizing water

Microbe(s): Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 25.2 (2001): 91-100

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

This study investigates the resistance of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms on stainless steel surfaces to electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water. A direct agar overlay method was used to estimate the attached bacteria on stainless steel coupons after an EO water treatment. A scraping method was also used to quantify the adherent cell populations after the EO water treatment. The stainless steel surface...

Journal Japanese Society of Food Science and Technology 48.11 (2001): 827-834

Sterilization effect and influence on food surface by acidic electrolyzed water treatment

Microbe(s): Journal Japanese Society of Food Science and Technology 48.11 (2001): 827-834

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

Recently, several reports about sterilization effect of electrolyzed water have been published. The electrolyzed water is expected as one of attractive application for sanitation of fresh food, however, to install this electrolyzed water, we have to clear the potential of the microorganism control for real food. In this paper, we try to reveal the mechanism of the microorganism control, and also...

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50.3 (2002): 633-641

Decontamination of aflatoxin-forming fungus and elimination of aflatoxin mutagenicity with electrolyzed NaCl anode solution

Microbe(s): Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50.3 (2002): 633-641

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

Electrolysis of a 0.1% (17.1 mM) solution of NaCl using separate anode and cathode compartments gives rise to solutions containing active chemical species. The strongly acidic anode solution (EW(+)) has high levels of dissolved oxygen and available chlorine in a form of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) with a strong potential for sterilization, which we have investigated here. Exposing Aspergillus...

Journal of agricultural and Food Chemistry 50.1 (2002): 230-234

Inactivation of Staphylococcal enterotoxin-A with an electrolyzed anodic solution

Microbe(s): Journal of agricultural and Food Chemistry 50.1 (2002): 230-234

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

Electrolyzed anodic NaCl solutions [EW(+)], prepared by the electrolysis of 0.1% NaCl, have been shown to instantly inactivate most pathogens that cause food-borne disease. Elimination of food-borne pathogens does not necessarily guarantee food safety because enterotoxins produced by pathogens may remain active. We have tested whether EW(+) can inactivate Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), one...

Letters in Applied Microbiology 35.4 (2002): 321-325

Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes/Flavobacterium spp. biofilms using chlorine: impact of substrate, pH, time and concentration

Microbe(s): Letters in Applied Microbiology 35.4 (2002): 321-325

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

Aims: To determine the effect of chlorine on mixed bacterial biofilms on stainless steel (SS) and conveyor belt surfaces. Methods and Results: Biofilms were exposed to pH-adjusted (6.5) and non-pH-adjusted solutions of chlorine (200, 400 and 600 ppm) for either 2, 10 or 20 min and survivors enumerated. There were significant differences in cell death relating to chlorine concentration and...

American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, 2003

CIP cleaning of a pipeline milking system using electrolyzed oxidizing water

Microbe(s): American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, 2003

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

Milking systems, electrolyzed oxidizing water, CIP, clean in place, ATP bioluminescence Electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water is a technology that electrolyzes a weak sodium chloride solution into sodium and chlorine, resulting in two solutions alkaline and acid. The goal of this research is to determine if EO water is an acceptable cleaning agent for pipeline milking systems. After constructing 1.5...

Journal of Food Protection 66.8 (2003): 1379-1384

Stability of Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water and Its Efficacy against Cell Suspensions of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes

Microbe(s): Journal of Food Protection 66.8 (2003): 1379-1384

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

Electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water has proved to be effective against foodborne pathogens attached to cutting boards and poultry surfaces and against spoilage organisms on vegetables; however, its levels of effectiveness against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium in cell suspensions have not been compared with those of other treatments. In this study, the oxidation reduction...

International Journal of Food Microbiology 91.1 (2004): 13-18

Effects of chlorine and pH on efficacy of electrolyzed water for inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes

Microbe(s): International Journal of Food Microbiology 91.1 (2004): 13-18

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

The effects of chlorine and pH on the bactericidal activity of electrolyzed (EO) water were examined against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. The residual chlorine concentration of EO water ranged from 0.1 to 5.0 mg/l, and the pH effect was examined at pH 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0. The bactericidal activity of EO water increased with residual chlorine concentration for both pathogens,...

International journal of dairy technology 58.2 (2005): 65-73

Response surface modelling for cleaning and disinfecting materials used in milking systems with electrolysed oxidizing water

Microbe(s): International journal of dairy technology 58.2 (2005): 65-73

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

Electrolysed oxidizing (EO) water is produced by passing a DC current through a weak sodium chloride solution, resulting in alkaline and acidic EO water. The goal of this research was to determine whether EO water could be used as an acceptable cleaning and disinfecting agent for materials used in pipeline milking systems. Small pieces of materials commonly used in milking systems were soiled...

Journal of Food Protection 68.7 (2005): 1375-1380

Enhancing the bactericidal effect of electrolyzed water on Listeria monocytogenes biofilms formed on stainless steel

Microbe(s): Journal of Food Protection 68.7 (2005): 1375-1380

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

Biofilms are potential sources of contamination to food in processing plants, because they frequently survive sanitizer treatments during cleaning. The objective of this research was to investigate the combined use of alkaline and acidic electrolyzed (EO) water in the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms on stainless steel surfaces. Biofilms were grown on rectangular stainless steel...

Deutsche Lebensmittelrundschau 103.5 (2007): 212

Electrolyzed water: A new technology for food decontamination-A review

Microbe(s): Deutsche Lebensmittelrundschau 103.5 (2007): 212

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

Electrolyzed water (EW) has attracted much recent attention as a high-performance, new technology for potential use in the food industry. However, this is the first review which examines the potential of the antimicrobial effect of electrolyzed water solutions in many different food models such as vegetable, fruits, meat, poultry, fish, and other products. Production, theoretical of the chemical...

Journal of Food Engineering 78.4 (2007): 1326-1332

The generation and inactivation mechanism of oxidation reduction potential of electrolyzed oxidizing water

Microbe(s): Journal of Food Engineering 78.4 (2007): 1326-1332

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

The Nernst equations between the oxidation reduction potential (ORP), the concentration of hypochlorous acid and chlorine and the value of pH in electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) were developed in three parts, which were in agreement in the measured values. The role of ORP in EOW for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 was studied. The inactivation effect of EOW on E. coli O157:H7 was also...

Journal of Food Engineering 91.4 (2009): 582-586

Physicochemical properties and bactericidal efficiency of neutral and acidic electrolyzed water under different storage conditions

Microbe(s): Journal of Food Engineering 91.4 (2009): 582-586

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

Neutral (NEW) and acidic (AEW) electrolyzed water were stored in open or closed glass bottles under light or dark conditions at 20 C for 30 days. The pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), electrical conductivity (EC), available chlorine concentration (ACC), dissolved oxygen (DO), and bactericidal efficiency of NEW and AEW were determined during storage or before and after storage,...

Journal of Food Science 74.4 (2009): M185-M189

Synergistic effect of electrolyzed water and citric acid against Bacillus cereus cells and spores on cereal grains

Microbe(s): Journal of Food Science 74.4 (2009): M185-M189

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

The effects of acidic electrolyzed water (AcEW), alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW), 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), and 1% citric acid (CA) alone, and combinations of AcEW with 1% CA (AcEW + CA) and AlEW with 1% CA (AlEW + CA) against Bacillus cereus vegetative cells and spores was evaluated as a function of temperature (25, 30, 40, 50, or 60 C) and dipping time (3 or 6 h). A 3-strain...

African Journal of Food Science 4.13 (2010): 778-789

A review of microbiological safety of fruits and vegetables and the introduction of electrolyzed water as an alternative to sodium hypochlorite solution

Microbe(s): African Journal of Food Science 4.13 (2010): 778-789

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

Over the past few years, food safety has become and continues to be the number one public concern. Considerable progress to strengthen food safety systems has been achieved in many countries, highlighting the opportunities to reduce and prevent food-borne disease. However, unacceptable rates of food-borne illness still remain and new hazards continue to enter the food supply chain. Contaminations...

Journal of Food Protection 73.3 (2010): 483-487

Inhibition of microbial growth and enrichment of -aminobutyric acid during germination of brown rice by electrolyzed oxidizing water

Microbe(s): Journal of Food Protection 73.3 (2010): 483-487

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

Electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) has been regarded as a potential environmentally friendly broad spectrum microbial decontaminant. EOW with a pH of 3.0 and oxidation reduction potential of 1,079.0 mV were generated by the electrolysis of a dilute NaCl solution (20 mM) in an electrochemical cell. The effects of EOW, 1% NaClO solution, and alkaline electrolyzed water on controlling microbial...

Journal of Food Protection 73.12 (2010): 2211-2216

Effect of slightly acidic electrolyzed water for inactivating Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus analyzed by transmission electron microscopy

Microbe(s): Journal of Food Protection 73.12 (2010): 2211-2216

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

The use of different available chlorine concentrations (ACCs) of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW; 0.5 to 30 mg/liter), different treatment times, and different temperatures for inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated. The morphology of both pathogens also was analyzed with transmission electron microscopy. A 3-min treatment with SAEW (pH 6.0 to 6.5)...

Journal of food science 75.5 (2010): M253-M260

Studies on disinfection mechanism of electrolyzed oxidizing water on E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus

Microbe(s): Journal of food science 75.5 (2010): M253-M260

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

Suspension quantitative germicidal test showed that electrolyzed oxidizing water (EO water) was an efficient and rapid disinfectant. Disinfection rates towards E. coli (available chlorine concentration ACC: 12.40 mg/L) and Staphylococcus aureus (ACC: 37.30 mg/L) could reach 100% at 1 and 3 min, respectively. Disinfection mechanism of EO water was investigated at a molecular biological...

International journal of food microbiology 136.3 (2010): 255-260

Evaluation of bactericidal activity of weakly acidic electrolyzed water (WAEW) against Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Microbe(s): International journal of food microbiology 136.3 (2010): 255-260

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibriovulnificus cause severe foodborne illness in humans; thus, to reduce outbreaks of disease, it is clearly important to reduce food contamination by these pathogens. Although electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water has been reported to exhibit strong bactericidal activities against many pathogens, it has never been tested against V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus....

Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 110.3 (2010): 308-313

In vitro inactivation of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. using slightly acidic electrolyzed water

Microbe(s): Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 110.3 (2010): 308-313

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

In the current study, the effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) on an in vitro inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Salmonella spp. was evaluated and compared with other sanitizers. SAEW (pH 5.6, 23 mg/l available chlorine concentration; ACC; and 940 mV oxidation reduction potential; ORP) was generated by electrolysis of dilute...

Food Science and Biotechnology 20.5 (2011): 1367-1371

Optimization of inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus by low concentration electrolyzed water using response surface methodology

Microbe(s): Food Science and Biotechnology 20.5 (2011): 1367-1371

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

The objective of this study was to investigate the combined effect of temperature (1535C), pH (3-9), and dipping time (15 min) on the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus in broth treated with low concentration electrolyzed water (LcEW). Reductions of 1.447.12 log CFU/mL were observed in different combinations of the 3 factors. Also, a quadratic equation for S. aureus inactivation kinetic was...

Food Science and Biotechnology 20.4 (2011): 889

Disinfection effect and its mechanism of electrolyzed oxidizing water on spores of Bacillus subtilis var. niger

Microbe(s): Food Science and Biotechnology 20.4 (2011): 889

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

A study was carried out on the disinfection efficiency of electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) on spores of Bacillus subtilis var. niger. The results showed a remarkable fungicidal rate of 100% after 20 min duration of 191 mg/L active available chlorine (ACC). The disinfection effect was improved with increased ACC or prolonged disinfection time, while organic interferents exerted a strong...

Journal of Food Engineering 113.4 (2012): 548-553

Stability of low concentration electrolyzed water and its sanitization potential against foodborne pathogens

Microbe(s): Journal of Food Engineering 113.4 (2012): 548-553

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

Low concentration electrolyzed water (LcEW) has been proved to be an effective sanitizer against pathogens in cell suspensions as well as pathogens and spoilage organisms attached to vegetables, poultry and meat. In this study, effect of current, electrolysis time and salt concentration on physical properties (pH, ORP and ACC) and inactivation efficacy of LcEW was monitored. Pure cultures of...

Food Control 23.2 (2012): 515-521

Neutralized electrolyzed water efficiently reduces Fusarium spp. in vitro and on wheat kernels but can trigger deoxynivalenol (DON) biosynthesis

Microbe(s): Food Control 23.2 (2012): 515-521

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), caused by a blend of Fusarium species, is a destructive fungal disease of wheat and other small grain cereals. FHB has become an important issue in food and feed industry. Moreover, the majority of FHB pathogens have the ability to synthesize a range of mycotoxins. Although several physical and chemical control measures can be taken to control these fungi in the field,...

Journal of Food Science 77.4 (2012)

Transmission Electron Microscopic Analysis Showing Structural Changes to Bacterial Cells Treated with Electrolyzed Water and an Acidic Sanitizer

Microbe(s): Journal of Food Science 77.4 (2012)

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

The effects of various sanitizers on the viability and cellular injury to structures of Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua were investigated. A food grade organic acidic formulation (pH 2.5) and acidic, neutral, and basic electrolyzed water [AEW (pH 2.7, oxidation reduction potential; ORP: 1100 mV, free available chlorine; FAC: 150 ppm), NEW (pH 6.9, ORP: 840 mV, FAC: 150 ppm), BEW (pH 11.6,...

International Journal of Food Microbiology 155.3 (2012): 99-104

Roles of hydroxyl radicals in electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) for the inactivation of Escherichia coli

Microbe(s): International Journal of Food Microbiology 155.3 (2012): 99-104

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

The food industry has recognized electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) as a promising alternative decontamination technique. However, there is not a consensus about the sanitizing mechanism of EOW. In this study, we evaluated the disinfection efficacy of different types of EOW on Escherichia coli. Based on the hypothesis of hydroxyl radicals existing in EOW, in the present study, the hydroxyl...

Intl. J. Food Eng 8.3 (2012): 41

Bactericidal activity of slightly acidic electrolyzed water produced by different methods analyzed with ultraviolet spectrophotometric

Microbe(s): Intl. J. Food Eng 8.3 (2012): 41

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) as a novel antimicrobial agent is generated by electrolysis of dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) and/or sodium chloride (NaCl) solution in a cell with or without a separating membrane. The ultraviolet absorption spectra were used to determine the concentration of hypochlorous acid (HClO) and hypochlorite ion (ClO ) in SAEW generated by four different...

Food Control 27.1 (2012): 16-20

Elimination of aflatoxin B1 in peanuts by acidic electrolyzed oxidizing water

Microbe(s): Food Control 27.1 (2012): 16-20

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

Acidic electrolyzed oxidizing water (AcEW) is prepared by electrolyzing electrolyte solution using an electrolysis apparatus with an ion-exchange membrane. AcEW has a pH 1000 mV and a high available chlorine concentration (ACC). In this research, the effectiveness of AcEW on decontamination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) from naturally contaminated peanuts was investigated. According to our results,...

Food Control 34.2 (2013): 472-477

Effect of neutral electrolyzed water on lux-tagged Listeria monocytogenes EGDe biofilms adhered to stainless steel and visualization with destructive and non-destructive microscopy techniques

Microbe(s): Food Control 34.2 (2013): 472-477

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in food processing environment is a risk of food contamination by persistent cells due to their ability to attach to stainless steel and other surfaces. We aimed to study biofilms formation of lux-tagged L. monocytogenes EGDe on stainless steel surfaces and their control using neutral electrolyzed water (NEW), where biofilms development was monitored using...

Food Control 32.2 (2013): 626-631

Effects of water hardness and pH on efficacy of chlorine-based sanitizers for inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes

Microbe(s): Food Control 32.2 (2013): 626-631

ABSTRACT - Full Text PDF

The effects of hardness and pH of water used to prepare electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water and bleach solutions on the bactericidal activity of sanitizer prepared from the water were examined. EO water and bleach solutions were prepared with hard water of 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/l as CaCO3 at pH 5, 6, 7, and 8. Increased water hardness tended to increase free chlorine and oxidation-reduction...

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